Entries by Ryan Casey


Using AlphaFold for Modeling HLA-Peptide Complexes in the Context of HLA Typing

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune response, with HLA proteins presenting peptides derived from endogenous and exogenous proteins to T cells. Accurate modeling of the structural interactions between HLA proteins and their bound peptides is essential for understanding the molecular basis of immune recognition and has implications […]

A Guide to HLA Typing with Nanopore Long Read Sequencing

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex plays a critical role in the immune system’s ability to distinguish between self and non-self. Accurate HLA typing is essential for many applications, including organ and stem cell transplantation, disease association studies, drug hypersensitivity research, and more. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized HLA typing by enabling high-resolution, high-throughput analysis. […]

HLA Typing and PyMol Modeling: Revolutionizing Drug Development through Immunogenetics

Introduction to HLA Typing for Drug Development The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system plays a crucial role in immune response and drug hypersensitivity reactions. HLA molecules present peptides to T cells to elicit immune responses, but can also present drug metabolites that trigger adverse reactions[1][2]. Therefore, understanding HLA genetics is critical for drug development to […]

How HLA Typing informs Drug Development

Understanding HLA Binding Specificity to Inform Drug Development Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules play a critical role in immune responses by presenting peptides to T cells. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, with thousands of HLA alleles known to date. Each HLA allele has a unique peptide binding specificity that is determined by the amino acid […]

HLA Typing and Gene Expression Profiling

Introduction Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing has become an invaluable tool for understanding immune responses and investigating protein pathways associated with HLA genes. High-resolution HLA typing provides precise characterization of HLA alleles, enabling researchers to link specific HLA variants with disease susceptibility, vaccine efficacy, and transplantation outcomes[1][2]. Moreover, combining HLA typing data with other omics […]

The Role of HLA Typing in Understanding the HLA-A*24:02:01:01 Allele

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing is a critical process in immunogenetics, enabling the identification of specific alleles within the HLA system. This system, integral to the adaptive immune response, is highly polymorphic, with numerous alleles contributing to the diversity of immune responses among individuals. The HLA-A*24:02:01:01 allele is one such variant within the HLA-A gene […]

Illumina vs Nanopore Sequencing: A Technical Comparison for HLA Typing

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing is essential for bone marrow and organ transplantation. Accurate HLA typing at high resolution is critical to ensure donor-recipient matching and prevent graft rejection. Two major sequencing technologies used for HLA typing are Illumina short-read sequencing and Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing. This white paper provides a technical overview of these […]

Unraveling the Complexities of HLA Mutations and Its Implications in Disease Susceptibility

As research into human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), hugely important molecular markers of the immune response, continues to grow, it consistently unveils a multifaceted array of genetic expressions that contribute to disease susceptibility. HLAs, crucial components of the immune system, characterize an individual’s specific immune response to pathogens and foreign substances. The identification of HLA mutations […]

Unveiling the Intricacies of HLA Genetic Protein Interactions

The human immune system is delicately complex, constantly modulating responses in real-time in the face of an unending, unseen assault by a myriad of pathogens. Central to this pivotal defense mechanism is the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) system, a group of genes associated with a vast array of immune responses in the human body such […]

Unlocking the Mysteries of Immunity: A Deeper Look into the HLA-A Gene

Introduction Human Leukocyte Antigen-A (HLA-A) plays an instrumental role in the immune system, gaining increasing recognition for its diverse influences on our bodies’ defense mechanisms. HLA-A gene, a part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, is central to our immune function, shaping how our bodies respond to antigens. This article will delve deeper […]

HLA Typing and the Fundamentals of Immunology

The very essence of HLA typing and its integral role in immunology rests in the highly polymorphic nature of the HLA genes. These genes, responsible for encoding MHC proteins, are key orchestrators of our immune response, a dynamic and complex process designed to protect us from foreign antigens. These MHC proteins are categorized into two […]

HLA Typing and Immuno-oncology

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) typing, a cornerstone of immunogenetics, is a sophisticated method used to identify the specific variants of HLA genes in an individual. Given the role of HLA genes in immune regulation and response, HLA typing has become an invaluable tool in immuno-oncology research. The following discussion will delve into the intricacies of […]

What is the relationship between CAR-T and HLA Loci?

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy represents a groundbreaking shift in our approach to treating malignancies, reshaping the landscape of cancer therapy. This revolutionary treatment involves engineering a patient’s own T cells to express a CAR that can specifically target tumor antigens, thus harnessing the body’s immune system to combat cancer. Intriguingly, the Human Leukocyte […]

The Influence of HLA Typing on Disease Susceptibility

The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) system functions as a pivotal player in the architecture of our immune response, playing a key role in the recognition and eradication of foreign pathogens. By studying the variations in HLA types, or HLA typing, we can gain significant insight into an individual’s predisposition to specific infectious diseases and their […]

HLA-A*01:01:01:01 Allele and its Impact on the Development of Malignancies

The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) system plays a crucial role in immune recognition and response against pathogens and malignant cells. The HLA-A*01:01:01:01 allele has been linked to an increased risk of developing certain malignancies, such as cervical cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The current hypothesis suggests that this increased risk may be attributed […]

The HLA-A*32:01 Variant: A Focused Exploration for Immunology Experts

The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) system is a cornerstone of the adaptive immune response, consisting of cell surface molecules encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. The HLA-A gene, a member of the MHC class I family, is highly polymorphic, with thousands of allelic variants identified to date. The HLA-A32:01 variant has garnered particular […]

A Quick Guide to Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Typing Techniques

Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are proteins found on the surface of cells that play a vital role in the immune system. HLA typing is a critical process for determining compatibility between donors and recipients in organ transplantation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and for understanding the genetic basis of many autoimmune diseases. This blog post delves […]

The Functions of HLA Genes

The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) system is a group of genes that plays a crucial role in the immune system. Located on the short arm of chromosome 6, the HLA complex is part of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in humans, which is responsible for the regulation of the immune system. HLA genes encode cell-surface […]

How to Search for Variants in a 4-Field HLA Typing Report Against the IMGT Database

The International ImMunoGeneTics Information System (IMGT) is a high-quality, integrated database that provides comprehensive information on immunoglobulins (IG), T cell receptors (TR), and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. In this guide, we will outline the steps to search for specific variants a researcher finds in their 4-field HLA typing report against the IMGT database. How […]